An Overview. The River and the Source is an epic tale of three generations of Kenyan women and their progeny, spanning over years, takes the reader from. The River and the Source was the winner of the Commonwealth Writers Prize ( Best First Book – Africa), as well as and the Jomo Kenyatta Prize. Survival in a patriarchal society requires a strong willed character. Justify this statement in close reference to Akoko as portrayed in The River and The Source by.

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books, The River and the Source lacks real conflicts for one cannot fight with nature. The Nyabera stood in her mother‟s stead and the river moved on. In , this novel won both the Jomo Kenyatta Literature Prize, and the Commonwealth Writers Prize Best First Book in the Africa Region. Now reprinted, it. This item:The River and the Source by Margaret A. Ogola Paperback $ Start reading The River and the Source on your site in under a minute.

The River and the Source (by Margaret A Ogola)

There were higher dropout rates among girls than boys. Awiti and Peter studied hard to follow their vocation. They took different paths; Peter studied for priesthood while Awiti took to teaching. Mark made sure that all his children had decent education. He struggled to convince Becky to finish her A- levels despite her reluctance.

Death represents an end. It cycles around the life of Akoko.

The book portends death as inevitable. The first chapter opens with Akoko receiving the name Obanda after her recently dead uncle. Obura after escaping home meets with death at the hands of the Germans in Tanzania. The death of Obura represents deprivation. Everyone feels for this loss.

She loses her sense of direction and is left without a pole to hold on to. She has to relay on her own instincts, her inner power and wisdom to forge a life of her destined future.

This death represents despair and confusion. It determines a turning point from the decadent tradition of male property ownership to woman self-reliance-feminism.

Nyabera is surrounded by death. All her children die save for one-Awiti. The death of Akoko represents transition. She had become the light and cushion and hope everyone looked up to. Her death is a seal of the new bond she found in the union of Mark and Elizabeth.

Fate had made her grow wiser and her decisions transformational. When Elizabeth loses her first to ignorance, we learn the sad reality that, with the new education, few get to learn about the basics of child bearing and caring.

The young couple is so ignorant of the early signs of pregnancy that they take it as malaria-a common mistake. A lesson that students have to learn that life in itself has monsters and limitations to any choice one chooses to live.

Summary & Review

Awiti and Marks death finally rests the life that begun in Sakwa many year ago, pulsated through the caves of Aluor almost finding a water fall in the death of Akoko but picked up to Nakuru culminating in Wandia and Aoro. Many will argue that death is not much of a theme but recurrent topic. Majorly, I argue that death is as much a theme and a strong one because theme is what recurs in a story.

Having said that, I believe that, death offers lessons of perseverance and the will to survive despite the prevailing circumstances.

Death also re-evaluates and opens up other avenues in life that have been unexplored. In so many ways, change is viewed as the move from traditional perception of society to the modern ways.

Change can be radical or transitional as seen in The River and The Source. The River and The Source brings about a situational type of change.

The characters we come across in the book are open-minded individuals who are visionaries. They embrace change and accommodate radical views moderately. Akoko involves the white administration in securing the custody of her grandson. The way the colonial administration handles the matter is profoundly unimaginable. The DC involves the traditional customs and regulations to resolve the matter amicably instead of descending on Sakwa with guns and clubs.

This raises some hope in Akoko and her confidence in the white administration. The subtle British influence on the matter and the knowledge of traditional culture shows that the DC understood the importance of coercion as opposed to use of radical force. He knew it was just a matter of time. They learn Arithmetic and religion and successfully secure careers based on education and not a transition from childhood to adulthood where the only obligation was marriage.

The new education offers opportunities and diversifies. Regardless of the education, owuor remembers that he has great responsibility as the chief of Sakwa. This responsibility makes him uncomfortable but soon he is given blessings by his grandmother to pursue what his heart desires. Change requires sacrifice. Akoko knew how much she sacrificed to make Owuor pursue his padre education but she was happy that she was embracing this new life leaving the little about traditional obligations behind.

Nyabera sacrifices her love for Awiti and lets her join a Teacher Training College. The marriage negotiations of Elizabeth are a fascinating spectacle. For the first time, the women are directly involved in this age old custom.

Akoko makes sure that the marriage does not take the aspect of selling a girl to her potential husband but a custom that has to be obeyed. In this context, the little Mark Anthony gives is just a way of appeasing chik and not dowry per se.

Many would have expected that since she was a Christian, Akoko would not indulge in traditional practices, which in some churches are condemned to witchcraft but to Akoko. Change is about embracing the new and the old alike.

Many authors when writing of pre-colonial Africa are tempted to idealise both the people and cultures of that time.

This is not so with Ogala, who writes of traditional Luo life both charmingly, and believably. I was struck by the way in which she managed to create both traditional and modern Kenya fully, accurately, and perhaps most importantly, without judgement. She is even-handed in her depiction of the positive and negative aspects of the various cultures the characters navigate, and is refreshingly free of criticism of their choices.

Here, for example, is her description of what the women pack for the life-changing journey to the mission: Ogala has a clear and unpretentious narrative voice, which makes the story very engaging.

She also has a uniquely Kenyan turn of phrase. This is not perhaps a perfect novel. Occasionally the writing is not as sophisticated as it might be, so the reader gets a little overwhelmed by names — there are many, many, children in this book — and by characters who appear only very briefly.

This can become confusing. However, Ogala is to be very much commended for in The River and the Source , creating an engaging and moving portrait of one family across two centuries of Kenyan history.

Margaret Ogola sadly passed away in September May her soul rest in peace. Sarah Norman is a Zimbabwean who splits her time between Harare and Nairobi. She documents her reading life in the blog White Whale www. Wonderful review, Sarah! Thanks for introducing this beautiful classic to us.

I really love the novel. It effectively covers three generations; from a traditional Luo community to the one that adopts aspects of modernity. The book sounds a wake up call to the womenfolk.

Among other issues it presents the following themes for our interpretation and analysis: The book is indeed pertinent to current challenges we encounter in our daily engagements especially on the girl child education. We should not be chauvenistic. People like Sarah Norman can make Africa proud if given humble chances.

I like her commitment and determination in embracing the work of other people,thanks a lot for honoring a great literature hero,the late Margret Ogola may her soul rest in peace. Mwalimu Jeff-kass a musician. I love the characters in the book because they are industrious in the work they engage in. Akoko is my heroin especially when she walks to Kisumu to report her case to the DO-a white man.

This book is very inspiring. Bravo the late Dr. P Daktari cant jst put this book down…. I kindly take this moment to thank the Kenya Institute of Education for giving this wonderful book another chance to be used by the Kenyan students in high school. I believe that it is of a great honour to the Kenyan literature heroes and heroines like Margaret Adhiambo Ogolla.

Congratulations to the students who are using this novel because it is good as it informs them on the real culture of Africans and on the contrary, it gives the women chances to prevail their good point of view as opposed to the way in which men have been looking at them traditionally.

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Akoko is well portrayed in this novel as seen in her role as the main character. Mwalimu Jeffkass, a journalist and a musician. Seasonal shifts reinforce the importance of the source of the river in maintaining the bacterial seed-bank that spreads throughout the river.

Therefore, the preservation of the source of the river is important not only for hydrologic reasons but also to maintain the microbial composition and the ecological integrity of the river.

GK> Indian Rivers Origin, Destinations, Length, Tributaries [PDF]

Introduction The large domain of prokaryotic organisms encompassing the microbiome is highly diverse and ubiquitous, playing key roles as drivers of the major ecosystem processes [ 1 ]. In recent years, the application of NGS to 16S analysis has changed the sensitivity and throughput of microbiological analysis and has been widely used for understanding bacterioplankton [ 2 , 3 ].

For seawater, the most studied aquatic ecosystem, some recent studies have described several patterns of bacterial diversity [ 4 — 6 ].

Seasonal and environmental changes can affect bacterioplankton community structures [ 7 ]. However, there are microbial seed-banks that persist throughout seasons [ 8 ] and are spread throughout the global ocean [ 9 ]. Studies from lakes and streams represent the majority of knowledge of freshwater bacterioplankton. These studies have been important for understanding the structure, composition and dynamics of microbial diversity [ 10 — 13 ] as well as microbial responses to environmental disturbances [ 14 , 15 ].

A few high-throughput 16S-sequencing studies have also been conducted in river environments. Bacterioplankton in six rivers from circumpolar locations have been shown to shift synchronously, in correlation with seasonal variations [ 16 ].

The Sinos River is located in one of most important Brazilian industrial centers [ 18 ] and is divided into three sections: the upper, middle and lower courses, moving downriver.Elizabeth Awiti is my heroine because she never looked behind despite being the only girl in a class of many boys.

She had become the light and cushion and hope everyone looked up to. Her mother Akoko, and only surviving child, Awiti, join her there. In so many ways, change is viewed as the move from traditional perception of society to the modern ways.

It never seems to grow old, the wisdom and lessons to be learnt from this book.

Sort order. She documents her reading life in the blog White Whale www. Refresh and try again. Occasionally the writing is not as sophisticated as it might be, so the reader gets a little overwhelmed by names — there are many, many, children in this book — and by characters who appear only very briefly.