The chapter ends with a discussion of what research findings suggest about the most effective ways to teach and learn a second language in the classroom. ng in the Language Classroom nguage Classroom Teaching and om Teaching and Learning in the and Learning in the Language ng in the Language. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, by Tricia hypmarevlimist.gq - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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(lecture theaters, classrooms, seminar rooms), seeking to provide a quality educational experience for their students (henceforth, teacher-learners) through a. PDF | The article focuses on how foreign language teachers could use mobile learning as learning taking place in the classroom and informal learning, as. PDF | This book makes a unique contribution to classroom assessment literature, to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they.

This generates ideas through individual reflection: these are scribbled down and developed as the mind makes associa- tions. In the task in Materials extract 9. B students are taken through two further steps: elicitation by the teacher of points for content so that ideas are shared and exchanged, then collation of some of those on the blackboard, in the form of a mind map.

The next step is to ask students to work in pairs to decide on a logical sequence of information for the description. The advantage of mind maps as a planning strategy, particularly for descriptions, is that all aspects of a topic can be easily seen in relation to each other and possible links between sections of the composition suggest themselves.

This can assist with advance plan- ning of the overall text. Writing materials now seek ways of helping students to organize their ideas: through planning in groups, guided note-making, strategic questions by the teacher, organizing points in a hierarchy of importance for presentation, highlighting essential information, sequencing given information, and sorting and matching ideas. All of these techniques give initial support for what will eventually be a process undertaken indi- vidually.

With less mature writers, who may not have developed a sense of audience in writing in their first language, we can create audiences and build up awareness of the reader. For example, sometimes students can write for real audiences outside school such as local English-speaking organizations or individuals. The school can also provide an audi- ence with its population of English language learners; for example, class magazines can be published for the wider school community.

Within the classroom it is possible for the teacher to set up pairwork in which one students writing forms the basis for a response from the other student in the pair; for example, both students write a letter of invitation.

At this stage they can help each other plan and draft. If their discussion is in English, this constitutes natural fluency practice. The students then exchange the letters and write replies, accepting or declining the invitation. Another typical task is the exchange of letters to an agony aunt in a magazine and replies offering solutions. The principle involved in these letter exchanges is that of task dependency as the success of the exchange depends on the clarity of the letters to their readers: this reflects the interaction of reading and writing in real life.

As students work on writing tasks it is important that they ask themselves who they are writing for and keep that audience in mind as they write. Materials extract 9.

C provides a useful checklist of questions for the student writer. This is just the begin- ning of the task for a writer, who would also use a sense of audience to decide in what order to present the information. C Whatever your purpose, you must decide what information you have about your audience that is relevant to your purpose and take that information into account as you write.

The following questions, to be asked each time you choose a purpose and an audience for your writing, will help you focus on that audience and the choices you need to make in order to write for that audience.

Who is your audience? After you have decided your purpose, chosen a particular audience in mind, analyzed your audience, and deteimined the relevant information about your audience that you must consider as you write, you will next make a plan for your writing. Donahue Latulippe: Writing as a Personal Product, pages 9. This is especially the case if little work is done in class on revising as it gives students the impression that the teacher is primarily responsible for improving the quality of their written work.

A variety of procedures are now used to support revision, and these need to be evaluated against what we know of how good writers go about the process. A popular procedure is conferencing, as demonstrated in the transcript in the Introductory task to this chapter. As the class writes, the teacher can talk with individual students about work in progress.

Through careful questioning, the teacher can support a student writer in getting ideas together, organizing them, and finding appropriate language. Keh reports positive student feedback on conferencing.

She sug- gests an elicitation procedure with focusing questions such as Who are you writing to? Conferencing is a useful technique during the earlier stages of composition when writers are still thinking about content and organization. A popular device at a slightly later stage is the use of a checklist. This ex- ample in Materials extract 9. D is for individual use. Notice that these questions focus on the overall content and organization, and its appropriateness to purpose and audience.

Communicative language teaching

Other types of checklist can be used when students exchange drafts for comment and can focus on a recent teaching point. For example, a checklist on paragraphing could contain the questions: - Does the composition divide naturally into several parts?

Reformulation is a useful procedure when students have produced a first draft and are moving on to look at more local possibilities for improvement. It has the particular advantage that it provides students with opportunities to notice any differences between the target model and their own production see Chapter 5 and thus to acquire language forms. Reformulation Allwright proceeds through the following stages: 1 All the students carry out a guided writing task.

The task is guided to ensure that the content and or- ganization of their writing is similar overall. Indeed, collaborative work could be used at the planning stage. D 1 First answer these questions about your audience: Who is your audience? What interest do they have in this subject? What do they already know about this subject?

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To entertain your audience? To educate them? To inspire them to do something? To help them understand something new? To help them see something famil- iar from a new point of view? To change their minds about something? Ask yourself these questions: Is the main idea stated somewhere near the beginning of the paper?

If not, would the paper be more effec- tive if you did state the main idea? No matter where the main idea appears in your draft or even if it is only implied , is the main idea clear to yotf. Do you think it is clear to your audience?

Do you need to be more specific or concrete in your explana- tions?

Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, by Tricia Hedge.pdf

How would you answer them now? Did you include all the information you needed to discuss your topic as fully as you wanted? Should you add anything to your discussion? Is there any irrelevant information, information the audience either already knows or does not need to know to understand your explanations?

Should you delete any sec- tions of your discussion? Have you said anything your reader is likely to object to? Did you answer those anticipated objections? Have you said anything your reader may not understand? Is each new idea explained sufficiently before you move on to the next one?

Are the ideas clearly linked together? Do you lead your readers step by step to understand your ideas? Should you rearrange any sections of your paper? Do you think it gives the reader the feeling that you have said everything you intended to say about your subject?

Leki: Academic Writing: Techniques and Tasks, page 3 The teacher marks the work by indicating problems by means of underlining or highlighting. In well-resourced institutions photocopying will be possible, but it is also possible for sections of the composition, at least, to be written on the board.

This task can be done in the first or second language. My experience has been that, in early attempts to make use of reformulation, students often over-correct their own work, but that after several opportunities to practice they can be encouraged to take a more meas- ured approach and to pick up only those things of most use for their own writing.

The advantage of refor- mulation is that it allows discussion of such aspects as how ideas are developed, how a range of structures, vocabulary, or connecting devices can be used, and how the style needs to be appropriate to the readers.

Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, by Tricia Hedge.pdf

It will be the role of the teacher to provide the final feedback on the completed piece of work but, even here, there are choices to be made. A number of different marking strategies are available, for example: replacing the students writing with a more accurate or appropriate form; indicating a problem by underlining and inviting the student to self- correct, and locating an error and giving it a symbol to denote the type of error.

Studies in fective factors. Arnold Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sekita, K. Kyodo gakushu no teigi Dillenbourg P. What do you mean by collaborative to kanren yogo no seiri [A proposal for proper use of learning?

Dillenbourg Ed. Dooly, M. Constructing knowledge together. Slavin, R. Student teams and achievement divi- In M. Dooly Ed. Telecollaborative language learning: sions. Bern, Australia: Peter Lang. Storch, N. Are two heads better than one? Pair Erikawa, H.

Kyodo gakushu wo toriireta eigo jugyo work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27 3 , — Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms. Tokyo: Taishukan. Sugie, S.

Kyodo gakushu nyumon [An invitation to Jacobs, G. An investigation of the cooperative learning]. Kyoto: Nakanishiya. ELT Vygotsky, L. Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Journal, 50 2 , 99— Harvard University Press.

Johnson, D. Learning together Wajnryb, R. Grammar dictation.

Oxford: Oxford. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. An education- al psychology success story: Social interdependence Yoshitaka Kato is currently a doc- theory and cooperative learning.

Educational Researcher, toral student in the Department of 38 5 , — Foreign Language Acquisition and Johnson, D. Education at Kyoto University. His Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.

Kamimura, T. Effects of peer feedback on EFL stu- yoshitaka. Controversy over cooperative he teaches academic writing and learning: An interview with Dr. George M. His research interests include Matthews, R. Building bridges between cooperative and team-teaching and academic collaborative learning. Change: The Magazine of Higher writing. He can be contacted at Learning, 27 4 , 35— Submissions should be up to words describing a suc- cessful technique or lesson plan you have used that can be replicated by readers, and should conform to the My Share format see the guidelines on our website below.

Unfortunately, in many settings there is little opportunity for pre-SAP students to interact Abroad Programme: with post-SAP students in order to benefit from their advice.

Prompt Cards to Facilitate This activity encourages meaningful English communication between these two groups. It aims Discussion to ease pre-SAP student concerns, allow them to practice authentic English and simultaneously giv- ing post-SAP students the opportunity to reflect on Brett Davies their experiences more deeply.

While the benefits of such Step 1: Give three blank cards to each student and programmes are clear, students often display high ask them to write their own topic ideas — one per levels of anxiety before going abroad, most notably card.Linguists working from an innatist perspective draw much of their evidence from studies of the complexities of proficient speakers'language knowledge and performance and from analysis of their own intuitions about language.

Before we begin Classroom assessment procedures include the conventional paper-and-pencil style of test. The following is an example of a teachers comments on the writing development of a pupil in the second year of an English primary school.

On the one hand, cognitive maturity and metalinguistic awareness allow older learners to solve problems and engage in discussions about language. In the original formulation of the Interaction Hypothesis, Long ilferred that modified interaction is necessary for language acquisition, mmmarizing the relationship as follows: